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ENSO in 1997 and 1998
The 1997-98 El Niño event stands out both for its intensity and how it brought the ENSO phenomenon to public attention.
ENSO 2015 forecast
The current El Niño is on track to be one of the strongest recorded. Indicators of a strong cycle have been increasingly documented over much of 2015 and continued to mount into autumn.
ENSO cycle map
The weather phenomenon most commonly called El Niño is one part in a cycle of irregularly changing trade winds and sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.
Oscar Mayer plant
Historically, Wisconsinites have perceived their capital city as primarily a university and government town and, perhaps more recently, as an aspiring tech-industry center. They're not wrong — government is by far the biggest employer in the Madison area.
Lake Mendota
Whether looking forward to ice fishing season, crossing fingers for a rare journey to Lake Superior's sea caves on the shores of Bayfield County or just enduring the long cold months of winter, chances are the dates that lakes freeze and thaw are one mark by which one can measure the season in Wisconsin.
farm truck decontamination
The avian influenza epidemic of 2015 required a cooperative effort between state and federal agricultural officials and the poultry industry. Wisconsin's Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection worked with affected farms to confirm the presence of H5N2 and drew on its own expertise and personnel, as well as those of federal agencies and ag-industry partners to coordinate a response.
Visualization by Scott Gordon. Data source: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP).
Avian influenza struck more than 1.9 million chickens, turkeys and mixed-breed fowl across four Wisconsin counties between April and May 2015.
Avian flu impacts in the U.S.
The 2015 avian influenza epidemic was the largest in U.S. history, affecting more than 48 million domestic poultry birds in 15 states between December 2014 and June 2015, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
Turkeys
Wisconsin's bout with avian influenza came amid an epidemic that would eventually become the worst in U.S. history.
Avian flu impacts in Barron County
When considering the 2015 avian influenza epidemic in the U.S., it's important not to assume that the disease spread according to any one neat geographical pathway.